The slide presents an overview of various pre-existing medical conditions that are associated with AD.
There is a good body of evidence to support an association between traumatic brain injury (TBI), diabetes, and depression with an increased risk of dementia.[Jiang et al., 2013] The pathogenesis of depression and AD, putatively, involve common molecular mechanisms, such as chronic inflammation, and hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis.[Jiang et al., 2013]
Cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, cerebral embolism, microinfarct, white matter intensities) are associated with cognitive impairment and/or an increased risk of dementia, potentially caused by direct damage to the brain regions involved in cognitive function, increased amyloid β (Aβ) deposition (by promoting production and disrupting clearance mechanisms), or an enhanced inflammatory response.[Jiang et al., 2013] In contrast, cancer appears to have an inverse relationship with the development of AD, as studies have shown a decreased risk of AD in patients surviving cancer.[Jiang et al., 2013] This may be due to the common (often reciprocal) molecular mechanisms involved in cancer and in the development of AD (e.g., factors which regulate apoptosis, and the cell cycle).[Jiang et al., 2013]