The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is now in its fifth edition, DSM-5, which was published in 2013.
Slide represent diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode according to the DSM-5. Note that Criteria A-C represent a major depressive episode
Criteria A (previous slide)
Criteria B: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
Criteria C: The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or to another medical condition.
Note: Responses to a significant loss (e.g., bereavement, financial ruin, losses from a natural disaster, a serious medical illness or disability) may include the feelings of intense sadness, rumination about the loss, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss noted in Criterion A, which may resemble a depressive episode. Although such symptoms may be understandable or considered appropriate to the loss, the presence of a major depressive episode in addition to the normal response to a significant loss should also be carefully considered. This decision inevitably requires the exercise of clinical judgment based on the individual’s history and the cultural norms for the expression of distress in the context of loss.
Criteria D. The occurrence of the major depressive episode is not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified and unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders.
Criteria E. There has never been a manic episode or a hypomanie episode. Note: This exclusion does not apply if all of the manic-like or hypomanic-like episodes are substance-induced or are attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition.